HRC-S Exposure Map and Exposure-Corrected Image
CIAO 4.15 Science Threads
mkexpmap generates an exposure map which may be used to convert a counts image of a source to an image in flux units. The computed exposure map is essentially an image of the effective area at each sky position, accounting for the effects of dither motion which are especially important near the edges of the detector. The fluximage script automates the creation of an exposure-corrected image for a Chandra observation.
To build an exposure map for an HRC-S observation and create an exposure-corrected image.
- Analysis Guide: HRC Imaging
- Analysis Guide: Extended Sources
Last Update: 18 Jan 2022 - Reviewed for CIAO 4.14. Updated for Repro5/CALDB 4.9.6.
- Get Started
- Using the fluximage Script
- Step-by-Step Guide
Download the sample data: 1038 (HRC-S, Cas A)
unix% download_chandra_obsid 1038
unix% cd 1038 unix% punlearn chandra_repro unix% chandra_repro mode=h
# hrc_process_events (CIAO): The following error occurred 2216 times: WARNING: can't find a proper degap value for this raw coord. in hrcf01038_000N004_evt1.fits
# hrc_process_events (CIAO): The following error occurred 14 times: dsHPEEVENTSEQERR -- WARNING: Out of sequence events discovered in /ciao/data/1038/secondary/hrcf01038_000N004_evt1.fits.
are explained in the hrc_process_events caveats page.
Using the fluximage Script
How fluximage works
When running fluximage, you are only required to provide an input event file. The script will read the related data product filenames - bad pixels, aspect solution, mask (ACIS), and dead time correction (HRC) - and look for them in the working directory. If the files are in a different location or you wish to be explicit in what files are used, all of the input filenames may be set in the parameter file.
The fluximage script runs the following tools:
- dmcopy: to create an event image at with the specified binning factor
- hrc_bkgrnd_lookup, reproject_events, and dmimgcalc: to subtract the particle background (HRC-I only)
- asphist: to build the aspect histogram(s)
- mkinstmap: to calculate the instrument map(s) for the center of each energy band
- mkexpmap: to calculate the exposure map(s) in each energy band
- dmimgcalc: to combine the exposure maps (multi-chip/plate case only)
- dmimgthresh: to make a "threshold cut" before dividing the image by the exposure map, removing the hot pixels at the edges (optional)
- dmimgcalc: to normalize the image by the exposure map
For the multi-chip ACIS or multi-plate HRC-S cases, the tools are run once per chip or plate and are then combined into an image of the full detector.
By default, the intermediate per-chip data products are removed after the script has completed running. To save these (potentially numerous) files, set the cleanup parameter to no.
Run the script
In this example, the script is only run on the central plate, since this particular observation does not contain data for plates 1 or 3. The location of the input event file is provided, and the supporting data filenames are read from the header. Since energy is not explicitly resolved in HRC observations, the center of the energy band is chosen at the user's discretion. Here, 1.1 keV is used.
unix% punlearn fluximage unix% fluximage repro/ casa bands=::1.1 binsize=16 Running fluximage Version: 04 November 2021 Found repro/hrcf01038_repro_evt2.fits Using event file repro/hrcf01038_repro_evt2.fits Using PI=: with a monochromatic energy of 1.1 keV. Aspect solution repro/pcadf01038_000N001_asol1.fits found. Bad-pixel file repro/hrcf01038_repro_bpix1.fits found. Mask file repro/hrcf01038_000N005_msk1.fits found. Dtf file repro/hrcf01038_000N005_dtf1.fits found. The output images will have 980 by 315 pixels, pixel size of 2.1088 arcsec, and cover x=24096.5:39776.5:16,y=30192.5:35232.5:16. Running tasks in parallel with 4 processors. Creating aspect histogram for obsid 1038 # asphist (CIAO): WARNING: skipping 35 livetime correction records (from time: 117263850.466868 to time: 117263920.166871) Creating instrument map for obsid 1038 Creating exposure map for obsid 1038 Thresholding data for obsid 1038 Exposure-correcting image for obsid 1038 The following files were created: The clipped counts image is: casa_all_thresh.img The observation FOV is: casa_1038.fov The clipped exposure map is: casa_all_thresh.expmap The exposure-corrected image is: casa_all_flux.img
The result is the same as produced in the manual stages below (Figure 2).
WARNING about creating a large image
If the chosen binning factor is small enough (e.g. binsize=1 for an HRC-I observation) then the following warning will be seen:
# DMCOPY (CIAO): WARNING: Creating large image: 840 MB. Current max set at 500 MB. Increase maximum using [opt mem=n] or increase blocking to reduce size.
The output files are completely valid; the warning is just there to let you know that the files that are being created are large. At present there is no way to hide this message.
Please ensure that you have set up ardlib to use the bad pixel file for your observation before following this thread; see the Setting the Observation-specific Bad Pixel Files thread for more information.
1. Create An Image
This thread creates an exposure map for the central plate (chip_id=2), although all three plates could be used (see the ACIS multiple chip thread for information on how to loop through all the plates).
First, we need to create the image which will ultimately be normalized by the exposure map. Here we blocked the image by a factor of 16 after filtering by the FOV file:
unix% dmcopy "hrcf01038_repro_evt2.fits[sky=region(hrcf01038_repro_fov1.fits)][bin sky=::16]" img.bin16 unix% get_sky_limits img.bin16 Running: get_sky_limits version: 07 October 2016 Checking binning of image: img.bin16 Image has 980 x 314 pixels Pixel size is 15.999999999999996 by 15.999999999999988 Lower left (0.5,0.5) corner is x,y= 24105.7, 30197.1 Upper right (980.5,314.5) corner is x,y= 39785.7, 35221.1 DM filter is: x=24105.7:39785.7:#980,y=30197.1:35221.1:#314 mkexpmap xygrid value is: 24105.7:39785.7:#980,30197.1:35221.1:#314
2. Compute Exposure Map
Compute the Aspect Histogram
With aspect offsets file, we can create a binned histogram, detailing the aspect history of the observation. Only one aspect histogram needs to be computed because the three plates share a single GTI.
In some cases there will be more than one aspect solution file (pcadXXX_asol1.fits) for an observation. All the files must be input to the infile parameter, either as a list or as a stack. Here we use:
unix% cat hrcf01038_asol1.lis /data/ciao/1038/primary/pcadf01038_000N001_asol1.fits unix% punlearn asphist unix% asphist @hrcf01038_asol1.lis asphist.fits \ hrcf01038_repro_evt2.fits hrcf01038_000N005_dtf1.fits # asphist (CIAO): WARNING: skipping 35 livetime correction records (from time: 117263850.466868 to time: 117263920.166871)
Calculate the Instrument Map
Since the mirror effective area is used to create the instrument map, and that area is energy dependent, it is necessary to decide at what energy to perform the calculation (or whether to use a spectrum as weights). Since energy is not explicitly resolved in HRC observations, the monoenergy parameter is determined at the discretion of the observer (the default value is 1 keV); this thread uses a value of 1.1 keV.
Note that it is not necessary for the instrument map to be congruent with the exposure map. We set the pixelgrid parameter to cover the entire detector area and bin by a factor of 8.
Be sure that the ardlib.par parameter file is updated before proceeding. chandra_repro will set it automatically or users can set it manually:
unix% plist ardlib | grep HRC-S_BADPIX AXAF_HRC-S_BADPIX_FILE = NONE Enter HRC-S Badpix file unix% pset AXAF_HRC-S_BADPIX_FILE=hrcf01038_repro_bpix1.fits
Now we can create the instrument map
unix% punlearn mkinstmap unix% pset mkinstmap pixelgrid="1:16384:#1024,1:16384:#1024" unix% pset mkinstmap obsfile="hrcf01038_repro_evt2.fits[EVENTS]" unix% pset mkinstmap maskfile="hrcf01038_000N005_msk1.fits[MASK2]" unix% pset mkinstmap detsubsys=HRC-S2 unix% mkinstmap 2.instmap NONE 1.1 mode=h
Calculate the Exposure Map
Now we use mkexpmap and the aspect information stored in the histogram to project the instrument map onto the sky. The get_sky_limits script can be used to calculate the exposure map binning information from the existing image:
unix% get_sky_limits img.bin16 Running: get_sky_limits version: 07 October 2016 Checking binning of image: img.bin16 Image has 980 x 314 pixels Pixel size is 15.999999999999996 by 15.999999999999988 Lower left (0.5,0.5) corner is x,y= 24105.7, 30197.1 Upper right (980.5,314.5) corner is x,y= 39785.7, 35221.1 DM filter is: x=24105.7:39785.7:#980,y=30197.1:35221.1:#314 mkexpmap xygrid value is: 24105.7:39785.7:#980,30197.1:35221.1:#314
You can then set the xygrid parameter using the information provided by the script, either manually or via:
unix% pset mkexpmap xygrid=")get_sky_limits.xygrid"
(if the latter, do not run get_sky_limits again until after running mkexmap).
If you are computing a low-resolution exposure map and speed is more important than accuracy, set useavgaspect=yes. In doing so, only the average aspect pointing will be used to derive the exposure map; otherwise all points in the aspect histogram will be used. The time required to compute the exposure map is proportional to the number of bins in the aspect histogram; if the aspect histogram contains 100 bins, then the use of this option reduces the run time by a factor of 100, approximately (you may also want to set verbose to 2, since this causes mkexpmap to output percentage-completed information). Using the full aspect solution will help accurately account for plate edges, bad pixels, etc.
unix% set xygrid=`pget get_sky_limits xygrid` unix% echo $xygrid 24105.7:39785.7:#980,30197.1:35221.1:#314 unix% punlearn mkexpmap unix% pset mkexpmap xygrid=$xygrid unix% pset mkexpmap normalize=no unix% mkexpmap asphist.fits expmap.bin16 2.instmap mode=h
Since we set the normalize parameter to no, the exposure map has units of [cm2*s*counts/photon]. This allows us to simply divide the image by the exposure map to derive an image in units of flux ([photons/cm2/s/pixel]). If the setting had been left as yes (the default), the units of the exposure map would be [cm2*counts/photon]; see the help file for mkexpmap for more details on this.
Figure 1: Exposure map
3. Normalize the Image by the Exposure Map
The strongly variable exposure near the edge of a dithered field may produce "hot" pixels when divided into an image. While technically proper, these hot pixels can be an eyesore, drawing attention to a noisy, uninteresting portion of the image. The dmimgthresh tool is used to make a "threshold cut" before dividing the image by the exposure map, thus removing the hot pixels:
unix% punlearn dmimgthresh unix% dmimgthresh img.bin16 img.thresh.bin16 expfile=expmap.bin16 cut=1.5% unix% dmimgthresh expmap.bin16 expmap.thresh.bin16 cut=1.5%
Here we set our threshold at 1.5% of the maximum value of the exposure map. All image pixels with values of exposure less than this value will be set to 0.0 in the output file. You may want to adjust these values for your own observation.
The exposure map is in units of [cm2*s*counts/photon] since it was created by projecting the instrument map (in [cm2*counts/photon]) onto the tangent plane of the observation. To create an image in units of [photon/cm2/s/pixel], we simply need to divide by the exposure map. This can be performed in one step with dmimgcalc:
unix% punlearn dmimgcalc unix% dmimgcalc img.thresh.bin16 expmap.thresh.bin16 norm.bin16 div warning: CONTENT has 1 different values. warning: DETNAM has different value...Merged...
The messages are related to how the tool merges the header information in the input files. The merging_rules ahelp file explains the rules and how they affect the output file header.
The units of norm.bin16 (Figure 2) are [photon/cm2/s/pixel].
Figure 2: Exposure-corrected image of Cas A from the HRC-S
|09 Jan 2012||reviewed for CIAO 4.4: added the option of using the CIAO analysis menu in ds9 to calculate the source flux|
|06 Feb 2012||fluximage updates were released in the 06 Feb 2012 scripts package: setting badpixfile=CALDB uses the bad pixel file from the CALDB rather than the per-observation version.|
|16 Feb 2012||fluximage updates were released in the 16 Feb 2012 scripts package: setting badpixfile=NONE uses no bad pixel file when creating the instrument, and hence exposure, maps.|
|15 Oct 2012||The fluximage script has been updated in the 15 Oct 2012 scripts package: changes include an updated parameter file; output file names are different; and support for spectrally-weighted exposure maps. The observation used as an example has been changed to ObsId 1038, an observation of Cas A.|
|03 Dec 2012||Review for CIAO 4.5;remove mkexpmap chatter|
|04 Dec 2013||Review for CIAO 4.6. No changes.|
|17 Dec 2013||Review for CIAO 4.7. Minor edits only.|
|30 Jan 2017||Review for CIAO 4.9. Added note about maskfile and ardlib.par.|
|18 Jan 2022||Reviewed for CIAO 4.14. Updated for Repro5/CALDB 4.9.6.|