[Surveys -- Invited ]

Supermassive Black Hole Growth Over Cosmic Time: X-ray Constraints on the Demographics and Physics of Active Galaxies

William Brandt, Penn State University

Extragalactic X-ray surveys over the past decade have dramatically improved our understanding of how the majority populations of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) evolve over most of the history of the Universe. I will describe some of these exciting results, drawing from the findings of both deep and wide surveys. Topics covered will include (1) the utility and limitations of X-ray surveys for finding distant AGNs; (2) constraints upon the most heavily obscured AGNs in the distant universe; (3) the cosmic evolution of AGN spectral energy distributions and accretion processes; and (4) the AGN content of forming galaxies at high redshifts. I will also discuss some key outstanding problems and prospects for short-term and long-term advances.